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    We also briefly discuss certain lexical differences in the way players write about games, indicating fundamental differences in how Japanese and German players talk and think about games. Personal and educational classroom use of this paper is allowed, commercial use requires specific permission from the author. This paper reports the first results of an ongoing research project, launched in November The main goal of the project is to examine the European reception of Japanese video games, broadly defined as games developed by Japanese developers, and to compare it with the reception in Japan.

    We hope to contribute to a better understanding of how culture influences the way we experience, evaluate, think and talk about games.

    In a second step, we compare the German reception with reviews written by Japanese players. In contrast to Zagal and Tomuro , we conduct a qualitative analysis of the content, combining a grounded theory approach with a qualitative content analysis aided by QDA software. This dichotomy is based on notions of the uniqueness of Japanese games, i. Research towards the relationship between culture and game reception has mostly been directed towards the US and Japan e.

    Ngai , Cook , James Shifting our attention to Europe, we begin with an analysis of the German reception of Japanese games, Germany being the biggest market for games in Europe Newzoo The critical and commercial success of Persona 5, having sold more than two million copies worldwide as of December O'Connor , indicates a player base well beyond its predecessors and most other Japanese RPGs, allowing us to include the opinions of a diverse audience. Our focus on the first two entries into the Trails of Cold Steel ToCS series, is because of both, their similarities and dissimilarities to Persona 5.

    They share certain gameplay characteristics, such as a turn-based combat system and social simulation elements, as well as an art style reminding German players of Japanese anime. Persona 5 and ToCS I are set in a high school setting, the main characters being students. While Persona 5 has received widespread commercial success in the West, ToCS, remains a niche title, also evident in the number of user reviews written on each game.

    Persona 5 was published for PlayStation 3 and 4 in Japan and in Germany. ToCS I was also published on Steam Comparing Persona 5 and ToCS also proves to be an interesting case because of their respective critical evaluation see Table 1.

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    Persona 5 was universally praised by the gaming media and holds a rating of 4. ToCS, while also being positively received by critics, receives a worse score by Japanese users.

    However, in Western Steam and German scores of aggregated user reviews, ToCS is perceived in a largely positive way, both games holding a higher aggregate score on the German site site than Persona 5. Following this, we introduce our results by 1 comparing the German media with the German user reception, 2 contrasting the German and Japanese reception, and 3 discussing some lexical differences we encountered in our analysis.

    After discussing some selected findings, we present our conclusion. All the included websites function as portals for game related news and reviews. Four of them are related to printed gaming magazines, while Spieletipps also serves as a community to provide tips and cheats for games. The data is gathered, indexed and summarized by a group of five student assistants, located in Germany.

    For this analysis, we draw on the full text of German media articles 16 reviews , 1, user comments, written in response to these articles as well as 89 user reviews from site. In total, the dataset consists of , words. The analyzed user reviews constitute the totality of German language user reviews written on Persona 5 and ToCS on the German site website and Steam as of February 1st, To contrast our findings for the German reception, we also analyzed 80 Japanese user reviews, taken from site.

    As of -- 4 -- February 1st, , there are 2, Japanese user reviews for Persona 5 and for both ToCS games combined in the Japanese site store, indicating their different levels of commercial success. We divided our text corpus into six different document groups, based on the game, the origin of the content professional media or user generated and the country Japan or Germany. As the inclusion of both ToCS games is primarily a means to have more data available to contrast with the vast amount gathered for Persona 5 and our prior analysis indicated, that both games are commented upon in very similar ways, we have compiled them into one document group, for easier visibility.

    The structure of our corpus makes it possible, to compare German user reviews with German professional media articles, and the German user reception with the Japanese one.

    The resulting codes, taken directly from the text, were then compared, categorized and subsumed into more abstract codes, according to thematic proximity. We then proceeded with the selective coding. To allow for an easy comparison between the Japanese and German data, we decided on a system of low-level granularity codes, which we call categories, and sub-codes of higher granularity. Coding itself was carried out by two researchers, independently from each other, later comparing and discussing the results and adapting the coding scheme.

    In our analysis, we first compare the German user reception of ToCS and Persona 5 with the discourse in the professional media articles. After that, we compare the German with the Japanese user reception. This includes comments made about the characters in the game. Thus, they were devised to overlap with other codes, creating an easy way to identify in which context passages coded with other codes were used.

    As we employed a bottom-up approach towards coding, the categories we arrived at are directly derived from the textual expressions evident in our corpus. The sub-codes displayed in figure 1 themselves the result of subsuming codes closer to the text are generally more suitable units of analysis.

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    The superordinate categories mentioned above are constructs to more easily visualize and structure our findings. By using the codes positive and negative as markers for the context in which other codes were used, it is possible to create an intuitive visualization of how the evaluation of the games differs across our document groups see Figure 1 and 2.

    The biggest difference between the content of the professional media articles and the user generated content lies in the greater frequency of text coded as negative.

    User reviews and comments tend to display a greater variety in their evaluation of both, Persona 5 and ToCS. The size of the dots is calculated based on the relative frequency of code pairings inside a column. Examining the differences for ToCS, it first becomes apparent that the localization of the games, is perceived as predominantly negative in the user reviews and comments. In contrast, such praise was not depicted in the analyzed texts generated by users.

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    Instead they solely focus on the lack of a German localization, with many comments, written in relation to professional articles, arguing that the lack of a German translation for text- heavy games like ToCS is one of the main reasons, preventing them from downloading the games. Figure 2: Comparison between the German media and user reception of Persona 5 A more pronounced difference between professional and user reception can be seen for Persona 5.

    German user statements are significantly more often critical of the game than the German gaming media. The long duration was seen to be hard to integrate into the limited amount of free time available to the users. In relation to this, much criticism was aimed at the restrictive design of saving the game state. In both cases, for ToCS, as well as for Persona 5, the discussion of the games in the professional media and in user reviews and comment focuses on the same topics and evaluates the game largely in the same way.

    While user statements tend to cover a wider variety of opinions than present in the professional gaming media, especially in concern to negative views on the game, the similarities are nevertheless more pronounced than the differences. Especially user reviews on site have shown to be thematically close to professional gaming media reviews, with similar standards of evaluation. While stylistic differences exist, user reviews do cover most of what is written in professional reviews, while providing a platform for opinions deviating from the mainstream.

    Below, when examining the differences between the German and Japanese reception, we therefore refer colloquially to the German reception and only differentiate between user and professional content when necessary for the analysis.

    Japan and Germany Comparing the frequency of codes in the different document groups provides a first impression of the differences evident in the reception of the games in different cultural contexts.

    One of the most obvious differences can be found in the general evaluation of the games. While the respective frequency of the codes negative and positive is not necessarily an indicator of a games overall evaluation, they still provide a rough estimate about how much space in user reviews or comments is allocated towards the discussion of perceived negative or positive points of a game. The size of a dot signifies the relative frequency within a document group. As figure 3 shows, the only document group in which more text segments were coded negative than positive is the group consisting of Japanese site user reviews of ToCS I and II.

    Generally, this is consistent with the overall rating for the games see table 1 , as aggregated Japanese user reviews show a worse score than the German ones. It can also -- 8 -- be noted, that German user reviews and professional media articles on Persona 5 include more text parts coded as negative than the Japanese counterpart.

    Another fundamental difference between the Japanese and German reception can be seen in the high frequency of the code Localization in the German sources, especially in the user generated texts in concern to Persona 5.

    A closer look, with a higher level of granularity see Figure 4 , allows for a more differentiated analysis. The relative prominence of the category external, in the German media reception of Persona 5 is largely due to the many references made to the critical acclaim of the title by the gaming press, including articles about The Game Awards For example, eleven Japanese user reviews have commented positively on the button mapping employed in Persona 5 during combat in praising it as intuitive and elegant, something that is missing in the German reception of the game.

    First, confirming to the sub-code of gender, the lack of an option to choose a female protagonist was discussed by German users and the media. This discussion was absent in the examined Japanese user reviews. Especially among German users of Persona 5, a great overlap was seen between these two nominally different categories, as they discussed the setting of the game Tokyo , and tied it together with a discussion of how serious topics presented in the game, such as sexual harassment, are related to the Japanese setting.

    Thereby providing a look at how Japanese society is perceived by German players and gaming media. Again, these two nominally different categories duration of playthrough and pacing of content and story are de-facto used conjointly by many players.

    As stated above, the great length of the game was mentioned very frequently, often together with a discussion of which parts of the game feel too protracted. There are also pronounced differences in how Japanese and German users evaluate the games see Figure 5. The game was often compared unfavorably to its predecessors in the Legend of Heroes series, especially in concern to the perceived drop in quality of character dialogue. Our clearance sale is now on. Jun 21, — Uk retailers such as argos clearance shop for sale charming unique rustic x coffee.

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